Changing mammography guidelines and insights into health care reform

By Robert Troug, MD, executive director of Children’s Hospital Boston’s Institute for Professionalism and Ethical Practice and director of Clinical Ethics in the Division of Medical Ethics at Harvard Medical School. mammogram

Last week, I wrote a commentary in the New England Journal of Medicine on recent guidelines for routine mammography screening published by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. In it I described why the concept of rationing, which has been a dirty word in the American health care debate, is actually essential if we are to develop a health care care system that makes sense, is affordable and delivers the best possible health care to all of our citizens.

In their guidelines, the Taskforce recommended that routine mammography screening for women should begin at age 50 rather than the previously recommended age 40. As I read the report and reviewed the data, I was drawn toward what seemed to be contradictory conclusions.

On one hand, the data clearly show that screening women in their forties saves lives. In this age group, about 1,900 mammograms are required to save the life of one woman. And although false positives are a significant problem, only five biopsies are required for every case of cancer found. This seems like a pretty good deal to me, and I can understand why women’s advocacy groups have called for no change in the guidelines.

But other data made me realize that while screening women in their forties might be the right choice from the perspective of an individual woman, it is probably the wrong choice from the perspective of our health care system overall. It turns out that adherence to the current guidelines from the American Cancer Society (which include screening women in their forties) costs more than $680,000 for every year of life saved. This is more than 10 times the amount that is thought to be affordable within the health care budget of wealthy countries like our own. In other words, while we could probably make an exception and continue to offer screening to women in their forties (as the Obama administration has pledged to do, under pressure from its Republican critics), in the long run these kinds of decisions will drive us to bankruptcy.

As our country debates health care reform, this issue presents a stark example of the tragic choices we must confront. Any health care system that is both effective and affordable will have to forego certain types of care that unquestionably save lives, but at too high of a cost. While these decisions may seem unbearable, they are unavoidable.

There is a silver lining to this dark cloud, however. If the money saved from these more sensible screening guidelines were devoted to research and improving the treatment of breast cancer, it is likely that more lives would be saved in the long run.

6 thoughts on “Changing mammography guidelines and insights into health care reform

  1. Since when is there a price on life , that is the problem with our health care system, someone is making the $ . In August I was diagnosed with stage 3 Breast Cancer at the age of 37!!!, It is becoming more prominent at younger ages. Do not change the age for Mammograms, my life is worth more than all the money in the world to my two young beautiful Daughters.

  2. You say that screening women in their 40’s will bankrupt “us” and a paragraph later you say that the silver lining is that the money saved by not screening women in their 40’s can be given to researchers to improve care. It sounds to me like that is the same pot of money. The pot that will bankrupt “us”.

  3. “But other data made me realize that while screening women in their forties might be the right choice from the perspective of an individual woman, it is probably the wrong choice from the perspective of our health care system overall.” If your wife or daughter was ONE of those INDIVIDUALS you perhaps would change perspectives here from your
    HEAD to your HEART. We need to put the humanity back in medicine.

  4. *comments taken from Children’s Facebook fan page*

    Is it a guarantee that the money saved from these guidelines will be spent on research?

    Bonnie Iwanow
    this is a preventative test because of early detection, hence saves future medical expenses if not caught early. And I believe they say ya need one early in life for a comparison down the line…just like colonoscopies…but the MEDICADE will pay for unnecessary and EXPENSIVE medications to further life (10 DAYS) of terminally ill people…referring to 60 Minutes show…I think MEDICADE needs to be overhauled…

    Donna Porter Roach
    Men get breast cancer, too, just not as frequently as women. When Mom or Dad have breast cancer, it has an effect on the entire family. Children worry about their parents, so it might prompt questions, thus learning opportunities for the kids. Hopefully there will be a cure for the children of this generation!

    Kimberley Poole-Belmonte
    EVERYONE NEEDS TO GET THEIR MAMMOS AT THE AGE OF 40 or sooner if necessary. I work in Breast Oncology…..NONE of our doctors support the new recommendation! I see patients in their 20’s and 30’s all the time!

    Danielle Dufault
    I’m 28 and there has been a history of breast cancer in my family as well as benign tumors. I’m really nervous about getting a mammogram.

    Lisa Mills
    danielle just do it…it’ll be okay it’s really no big deal at all….and early detection = prevention!

    A family member was recently extremely lucky to have found STAGE 1 invasive lobular carcinoma…this cancer is usually found much too late. A routine mammo saved her life. A small price to pay compared to finding this monster after it would have had a chance to spread.

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